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alexs Georgiev
alexs Georgiev

Community Led Total Sanitation Pdf Download Fixed


LINK - https://urlin.us/2tspQg





The Government of India launched a Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) in October 2014 to achieve Clean India by 2019 (Ravindra and Smith, 2018). SBM aims to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through solid and liquid waste management activities and making village communities (Gram Panchayats) ODF, clean and sanitized (MDWS 2014). The application of IMA in CLTS activities is innovative and as shown in Table 1, it helped to achieve rapid progress (within 1 year) to make ODF villages in Fatehgarh Sahib. Table 1 also shows that clustering of villages declared as ODF but that happened due to administrative approval, as the authorities normally clear the cases together. A comparative assessment of traditional and IMA approach in CLTS is shown in Table 2, which highlights the importance of IMA in planning, monitoring, evaluating and validating a community-led total sanitation program. Application of IMA for sharing multimedia files was felt as the most useful feature by District Administration to observe daily progress and plan further. Hence, the ease of attaching multimedia files like audio, video, and image makes IMA more comprehensive and authentic for public service delivery. This also expedited the process of CLTS to make Fatehgarh Sahib as ODF district.


The study showed that the level of latrine utilization in CLTSH implemented and that of CLTSH non-implemented kebeles was low. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made by local and national governmental and non-governmental organization to should be used to promote behavioral change in the communities to implement community-led total sanitation and hygiene for improving latrine utilization.


Citation: Gebremariam B, Hagos G, Abay M (2018) Assessment of community led total sanitation and hygiene approach on improvement of latrine utilization in Laelay Maichew District, North Ethiopia. A comparative cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 13(9): e0203458.


Considering the devastating consequences of poor sanitation, in recent years sanitation programs including Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) have evolved dramatically most of them in which focused on engaging communities, creating demand for sanitation, and supporting the development of sustainable systems and appropriate technologies in which all of which are rooted in catalyzing community behavior and social change [4].


CLTSH is based on the principle of triggering collective behavior change with basic principles of no toilet subsidy and no financial reward when the community reaches 100% Open Defecation Free (ODF). In this approach, communities are simply facilitated to take collective action to adopt safe and hygienic sanitation behavior and ensure that all households have access to safe sanitation facilities [5]. In the process, the community is sensitized to the consequences of poor sanitary practices, commits itself to find own solutions, and finally is liberated from open defecation. This helps to increase a receptive environment for the adoption of improved practices in personal hygiene, safe handling of food and water as well as safe confinement and disposal of excreta and waste[4, 6, 7].


Community-led total sanitation and hygiene approach implementation were started in different parts of Ethiopia; nevertheless, the assessment of CLTSH approach on the utilization of latrine was not assessed, particularly in the study area. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the Community-led Total Sanitation and hygiene approach on the improvement of latrine utilization in the rural community of Laelay Maichew district, Central zone, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.


The sample size was calculated assuming two population proportion formula using rate of latrine utilization 50% for the two study sets, 95% Confidence level, 5% margin of error and 10% of non-response rate. The study subjects were selected using multistage sampling procedure, where the kebeles first divided into community-led total sanitati




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